elbow thrust block

Thrust blocking

Thrust blocking prevents main line from moving when the pressure load is applied. In efect, the thrust block transfers the load from the pipe to a wider load bearing surface. Thrust blocks are required where fittings are used to change the direction (i.e., at all ties, elbows, wyes, caps, valves, hydrants and reducers) of the…

spray nozzles

Selection of Pivot sprinkler packages (II)

Spray nozzles Directional spray nozzles The best application for this sprinkler package is on sandy soils which will accept the higher application rates or on flat heavy soils which will seal over during the irrigation season if irrigated with a package that produces large droplets. Typically, small droplets reduce compaction of most soils and help…

saline waters for irrigation

The use of saline waters for irrigation

Irrigated land may include widespread use of saline waters The use of saline waters for irrigation is a subject of much controversy. Most farmers aren’t interested in using saline waters, they want more fresh water. But we must be looking to the future. We have to find out what’s technically feasible so we’re not like…